Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Winners 2014-1901

(also available in alphabetical arrangement)
Nobel Prize in Medicine

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2014

The prize was with one half to

JOhn O'KEEFE and the other half jointly to MAY-BRITT MOSER and EDWARD I. MOSER for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain

2013

The prize was awarded jointly to:

JAMES E. ROTHMAN, RANDY W. SCHEKMAN and THOMAS C. SÜDHOF for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells.

2012

The prize was awarded jointly to:

JOHN B. GURDON and SHINYA YAMANAKA for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent.

2011

The prize was divided equally, with one half jointly to:

BRUCE A. BEUTLER and JULES A. HOFFMANN for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity

and the other half to:

RALPH M. STEINMAN for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity.

2010

The prize was awarded to:

ROBERT G. EDWARDS, for the development of in vitro fertilization.

2009

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ELIZABETH H. BLACKBURN, CAROL W. GREIDER, and JACK W. SZOSTAK for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase.

2008

The prize was divided equally, one half to:

HARALD ZUR HAUSEN for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer

and the other half jointly to:

FRANCOISE BARRE SINOUSSI, and LUC MONTAGNIER for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus

2007

The prize was awarded jointly to:

MARIO R. CAPECCHI, SIR MARTIN J. EVANS, and OLIVER SMITHIES for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells

2006

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ANDREW Z. FIRE, and CRAIG C. MELLO for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA

2005

The prize was awarded jointly to:

BARRY J. MARSHALL, and J. ROBIN WARREN for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.

2004

The prize was awarded jointly to:

RICHARD AXEL, and LINDA B BUCK for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system

2003

The prize was awarded jointly to:

PAUL C. LAUTERBUR, and SIR PETER MANSFIELD for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging.

2002

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SYDNEY BRENNER, H. ROBERT HORVITZ and JOHN E. SULSTON for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.

2001

The prize was awarded jointly to:

LELAND H. HARTWELL, R. TIMOTHY HUNT and PAUL M. NURSE for their discoveries of "key regulators of the cell cycle."

2000

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ARVID CARLSSON, PAUL GREENGARD and ERIC KANDEL for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.

1999

The prize was awarded to:

GÜNTER BLOBEL, for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell.

1998

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO and FERID MURAD for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

1997

STANLEY B. PRUSINER for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection

1996

The prize was awarded jointly to:

PETER C. DOHERTY and ROLF M. ZINKERNAGEL for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence.

1995

The prize was awarded jointly to:

EDWARD B. LEWIS, CHRISTIANE NÜSSLEIN-VOLHARD and ERIC F. WIESCHAUS for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development.

1994

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ALFRED G. GILMAN and MARTIN RODBELL for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells.

1993

The prize was awarded jointly to:

RICHARD J. ROBERTS and PHILLIP A. SHARP for their independent discoveries of split genes.

1992

The prize was awarded jointly to:

EDMOND H. FISCHER and EDWIN G. KREBS for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism.

1991

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ERWIN NEHER and BERT SAKMANN for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells.

1990

The prize was awarded jointly to:

JOSEPH E. MURRAY and E. DONNALL THOMAS for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.

1989

The prize was awarded jointly to:

J. MICHAEL BISHOP and HAROLD E. VARMUS for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes.

1988

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR JAMES W. BLACK , GERTRUDE B. ELION and GEORGE H. HITCHINGS for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.

1987

SUSUMU TONEGAWA for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity.

1986

The prize was awarded jointly to:

STANLEY COHEN and RITA LEVI-MONTALCINI for their discoveries of growth factors.

1985

The prize was awarded jointly to:

MICHAEL S. BROWN and JOSEPH L. GOLDSTEIN for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.

1984

The prize was awarded jointly to:

NIELS K. JERNE , GEORGES J.F. KÖHLER and CÉSAR MILSTEIN for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies.

1983

BARBARA MC CLINTOCK for her discovery of mobile genetic elements.

1982

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SUNE K. BERGSTRÖM , BENGT I. SAMUELSSON and SIR JOHN R. VANE for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.

1981

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

ROGER W. SPERRY for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres.

and the other half awarded jointly to:

DAVID H. HUBEL and TORSTEN N. WIESEL for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system.

1980

The prize was awarded jointly to:

BARUJ BENACERRAF , JEAN DAUSSET and GEORGE D. SNELL for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.

1979

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ALAN M. CORMACK and SIR GODFREY N. HOUNSFIELD for the development of computer assisted tomography.

1978

The prize was awarded jointly to:

WERNER ARBER , DANIEL NATHANS and HAMILTON O. SMITH for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics.

1977

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded jointly to:

ROGER GUILLEMIN and ANDREW V. SCHALLY for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain

and the other half awarded to:

ROSALYN YALOW for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones.

1976

The prize was awarded jointly to:

BARUCH S. BLUMBERG and D. CARLETON GAJDUSEK for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.

1975

The prize was awarded jointly to:

DAVID BALTIMORE , RENATO DULBECCO and HOWARD MARTIN TEMIN for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell.

1974

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ALBERT CLAUDE , CHRISTIAN DE DUVE and GEORGE E. PALADE for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell.

1973

The prize was awarded jointly to:

KARL VON FRISCH , KONRAD LORENZ and NIKOLAAS TINBERGEN for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns.

1972

The prize was awarded jointly to:

GERALD M. EDELMAN and RODNEY R. PORTER for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.

1971

EARL W. JR. SUTHERLAND for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones.

1970

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR BERNARD KATZ , ULF VON EULER and JULIUS AXELROD for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.

1969

The prize was awarded jointly to:

MAX DELBRÜCK , ALFRED D. HERSHEY and SALVADOR E. LURIA for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the gentic structure of viruses.

1968

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ROBERT W. HOLLEY , HAR GOBIND KHORANA and MARSHALL W. NIRENBERG for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.

1967

The prize was awarded jointly to:

RAGNAR GRANIT , HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE and GEORGE WALD for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.

1966

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

PEYTON ROUS for his discovery of tumorinducing viruses

and the other half to:

CHARLES BRENTON HUGGINS for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer.

1965

The prize was awarded jointly to:

FRANÇOIS JACOB , ANDRÉ LWOFF and JACOUES MONOD for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.

1964

The prize was awarded jointly to:

KONRAD BLOCH and FEODOR LYNEN for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.

1963

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR JOHN CAREW ECCLES , SIR ALAN LLOYD HODGKIN and SIR ANDREW FIELDING HUXLEY for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.

1962

The prize was awarded jointly to:

FRANCIS HARRY COMPTON CRICK , JAMES DEWEY WATSON and MAURICE HUGH FREDERICK WILKINS for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.

1961

GEORG VON BÉKÉSY for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea.

1960

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR FRANK MACFARLANE BURNET and SIR PETER BRIAN MEDAWAR for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance.

1959

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SEVERO OCHOA and ARTHUR KORNBERG for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxiribonucleic acid.

1958

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded jointly to:

GEORGE WELLS BEADLE and EDWARD LAWRIE TATUM for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events

and the other half to:

JOSHUA LEDERBERG for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria.

1957

DANIEL BOVET for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.

1956

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ANDRÉ FRÉDÉRIC COURNAND , WERNER FORSSMANN and DICKINSON W. RICHARDS for their discoveries concerning heart catherization and pathological changes in the circulatory system.

1955

AXEL HUGO THEODOR THEORELL for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes.

1954

The prize was awarded jointly to:

JOHN FRANKLIN ENDERS , THOMAS HUCKLE WELLER and FREDERICK CHAPMAN ROBBINS for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue.

1953

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS for his discovery of the citric acid cycle

and the other half to:

FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism.

1952

SELMAN ABRAHAM WAKSMAN for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis.

1951

MAX THEILER for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it.

1950

The prize was awarded jointly to:

EDWARD CALVIN KENDALL , TADEUS REICHSTEIN and PHILIP SHOWALTER HENCH for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects.

1949

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

WALTER RUDOLF HESS for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs

and the other half to:

ANTONIO CAETANO DE ABREU FREIRE EGAS MONIZ for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses.

1948

PAUL HERMANN MÜLLER for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arth ropods.

1947

The prize was divided, one half awarded jointly to:

CARL FERDINAND CORI and GERTY THERESA CORI née RADNITZ for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen

the other half awarded to:

BERNARDO ALBERTO HOUSSAY for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar.

1946

HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation.

1945

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING , SIR ERNST BORIS CHAIN and LORD HOWARD WALTER FLOREY for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases.

1944

The prize was awarded jointly to

JOSEPH ERLANGER and HERBERT SPENCER GASSER for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres.

1943

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

HENRIK CARL PETER DAM for his discovery of vitamin K.

and the other half to:

EDWARD ADELBERT DOISY for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K.

1942-1940

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1939

GERHARD DOMAGK for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award, but later received the diploma and the medal.)

1938

CORNEILLE JEAN FRANÇOIS HEYMANS for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration.

1937

ALBERT SZENT-GYÖRGYI VON NAGYRAPOLT for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid.

1936

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR HENRY HALLETT DALE and OTTO LOEWI for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses.

1935

HANS SPEMANN for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development.

1934

The prize was awarded jointly to:

GEORGE HOYT WHIPPLE , GEORGE RICHARDS MINOT and WILLIAM PARRY MURPHY for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia.

1933

THOMAS HUNT MORGAN for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity.

1932

The prize was awarded jointly to:

SIR CHARLES SCOTT SHERRINGTON and LORD EDGAR DOUGLAS ADRIAN for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons.

1931

OTTO HEINRICH WARBURG for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme.

1930

KARL LANDSTEINER for his discovery of human blood groups.

1929

The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:

CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin

and the other half awarded to:

SIR FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins.

1928

CHARLES JULES HENRI NICOLLE for his work on typhus.

1927

JULIUS WAGNER-JAUREGG for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica.

1926

JOHANNES ANDREAS GRIB FIBIGER for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma.

1925

The prize money for 1925 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1924

WILLEM EINTHOVEN for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram.

1923

SIR FREDERICK GRANT BANTING and JOHN JAMES RICHARD MACLEOD for the discovery of insulin.

1922

The prize was divided equally between:

SIR ARCHIBALD VIVIAN HILL for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle

and

OTTO FRITZ MEYERHOF for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactid acid in the muscle.

1921

The prize money for 1921 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1920

SCHACK AUGUST STEENBERGER KROGH for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism.

1919

JULES BORDET for his discoveries relating to immunity.

1918-1915

The prize money for 1918-1915 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1914

ROBERT BÁRÁNY for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus.

1913

CHARLES ROBERT RICHET in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis.

1912

ALEXIS CARREL in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood-vessels and organs.

1911

ALLVAR GULLSTRAND for his work on the dioptrics of the eye.

1910

ALBRECHT KOSSEL in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances.

1909

EMIL THEODOR KOCHER for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland.

1908

The prize was awarded jointly to:

ILYA ILYICH MECHNIKOV and PAUL EHRLICH in recognition of their work on immunity.

1907

CHARLES LOUIS ALPHONSE LAVERAN in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases.

1906

The prize was awarded jointly to:

CAMILLO GOLGI and SANTIAGO RAMON Y CAJAL in recognition of their work on the stucture of the nervous system.

1905

ROBERT KOCH for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis.

1904

IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged.

1903

NIELS RYBERG FINSEN in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science.

1902

SIR RONALD ROSS for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful resesarch on this disease and methods of combating it.

1901

EMIL ADOLF VON BEHRING for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths.


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